While the beginnings of a broader narrative (New Atheism) seems to have emerged it does not, according to Zenc, stand up to the full definition of a movement.
A sign that criticizes religion and draws attention to the September 11 attacks, by the Connecticut Valley Atheists in Rockville's Central Park, Vernon in December 2007.
Marx also viewed the Christian doctrine of original sin as being deeply anti-social in character.
Original sin, he argued, convinces people that the source of their misery lies in the inherent and unchangeable "sinfulness" of humanity rather than in the forms of social organization and institutions, which, Marx argued, can be changed through the application of collective social planning.
Every exclusive religion on Earth that promotes exclusive truth claims necessarily denigrates the truth claims of other religions.
Critics of religion in general often regard religion as outdated, harmful to the individual, harmful to society, an impediment to the progress of science, a source of immoral acts or customs, and a political tool for social control.
Today, religion is broadly conceived as an abstraction which entails beliefs, doctrines, and sacred places - even though the ancient and medieval cultures that produced holy scriptures (for example: the Bible, the Quran, etc.) did not have such conceptions or ideas in their languages, cultures, or histories.
Given current understanding of the physical world, where human knowledge has increased dramatically, Dawkins, and French atheist philosopher Michel Onfray contend that continuing to hold on to these belief systems is irrational and no longer useful.
Religious suffering is, at the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering.
According to Thomas Zenc, in the Oxford Handbook of Atheism, the four books were published during a time of intense debate on political, religious and sociological questions.
The works share many common themes yet still have notable differences.